562 DOC. 27

DISCUSSION

OF

DOC.

26

Discussion

comments

to Einstein

1914 (Doc.

26).

Published

in

Verhandlungen 1914,

pp.

353-

364.

[1]In

Lorentz

1912 (Lorentz

1914),

Lorentz

argues

that

the

energy

distribution

of

black-body

radiation is

incompatible

with

a

description

of

this

physical system

by

Hamilton's

equations,

because,

as

he shows in

this lecture

by applying

methods of statistical

mechanics,

these

equa-

tions lead

to

the classical

equipartition

theorem which

experiment

had shown

not

to hold for

black-body

radiation.

[2]In

Einstein

1914

(Doc. 26),

pp. 347-348,

Einstein

briefly

discussed

the

possibility

of

giving

up energy

conservation.

[3]Beginning

with Einstein

1905i

(Vol.

2,

Doc.

14),

Einstein

had

on a

number of

occasions

used Boltzmann's

principle to

draw conclusions about the statistical

properties

of

black-body

radiation and other

physical systems

from

their

thermodynamic properties. See,

in

particular,

Einstein

1909b

(Vol. 2,

Doc.

56),

pp. 187-188,

and the

introductory

section to Einstein 1910d

(Doc.

9);

for

a

historical

discussion,

see

Vol.

2,

the

editorial

note,

"Einstein

on

the Foundations

of Statistical

Physics," pp.

54.

For Einstein's

controversy

with Planck about

the

notion

of

probability,

see

also Doc.

25,

pp.

506-507.

[4]The

following

argument

was

first

given

in

Einstein

1906b

(Vol.

2,

Doc.

32),

pp.

375-376.

[5]For

Perrin's

original report

on

his experiments,

see

Perrin 1908.

He also

presented

his

findings

at

the

Solvay Congress;

see

Perrin

1912,

pp.

176ff,

or

Perrin

1914a,

pp. 145ff.

[6]The

problem

of

the choice

of

the

parameter

with

respect

to

which the

probability

of

a

state

is

defined became the

subject

of

correspondence

between D.K.C. MacDonald and Einstein

in

1953.

[7]Prior

to

presenting

the

following argument

at

the

Solvay Congress,

Einstein had discussed

it with

Besso;

see

Einstein

to

Michele

Besso,

second half of

August 1911,

and Einstein

to

Michele

Besso,

11

September

1911.

It

is

also alluded

to in

Einstein's lecture

notes

on

kinetic

theory (see

Doc.

4,

[pp. 50-51]).

[8]As

correctly printed

in

the French

version,

Einstein

1912a,

p.

441,

the

S

should

be

a

d.

[9]See

Gibbs 1902.

For

a

discussion of the

relationship

between the work of Gibbs and that

of Einstein

on

statistical

physics, see

Vol.

2,

the editorial

note,

"Einstein

on

the Foundations of

Statistical

Physics," pp.

41-55.

[10]The

following argument was

first

presented

in Einstein

1905i

(Vol. 2,

Doc.

14).

[11]Einstein had earlier

pointed

out

the

following

observation

in

Einstein

to H. A. Lorentz,

23 May 1909,

and

in

Einstein

1910b (Doc.

5).

[12]Planck

1914, p. 102,

and

Planck

1912, p.

84.

[13]Lorentz

is

probably

referring to

the first

term

in the

formula

for

(E/E)2

on p.

342 of

Einstein 1914

(Doc. 26).

[14]Kamerlingh

Onnes referred

to

a

passage

deleted

in

the

published

version

of

Einstein's

lecture;

see

note 47

of Einstein

1914 (Doc.

26).

[15]The

remark

appears

on

p.

301 of

Nernst

et

al. 1912

and

on p.

242 of

Nernst

et

al

1914

where

Kamerlingh

Onnes mentioned

a

calculation of the

specific

heat of

hydrogen according

to

Nernst's

theory.

[16]For

this formula and Einstein's

criticism of

it,

see

Einstein

1914

(Doc.

26), p.

351,

fn.

1.

[17]Nernst and Lindemann

1911b.

[18]The conversation

probably

took

place during

Einstein's

visit to

Leiden

to

deliver

a

lecture

in

early 1911; see

Einstein

to H. A. Lorentz,

15

February

1911,

where Einstein mentions his

conversations with Lorentz "about the

quanta

in relation to

the oscillation of material

systems"

("über

die

Quanten

bei

der Oszillation materieller

Gebilde").

[19]This

is

one

of the earliest

uses

of

adiabatic invariants

in

the

context

of

the

quantum

hypothesis;

for Ehrenfest's earlier

discussion,

see

Ehrenfest

1911b,

in particular,

p.

94;

for

evidence

that

Einstein had read Ehrenfest's

paper

before

attending

the

Solvay Congress, see

Einstein to

Michele

Besso, 21

October

1911.

For

a

discussion of the

relationship

between

this

remark

by

Einstein and Ehrenfest's adiabatic

principle, see

Klein,

M.

1970, p. 269,

fn.

8.