1 1 2 D O C . 1 1 6 L E C T U R E S B O N N
116. Discussions of Lectures in Bonn
[Einstein et al. 1923]
Printed version of the discussions following two lectures delivered at a meeting of the
Deutsche Physikalische Gesellschaft in Bonn, 16–22 September 1923.
Dated 16–22 September 1923
Published 15 November 1923
In: Physikalische Zeitschrift 24 (1923): 472–473, 484.
Mr. W. Wien: The speaker noted that utilization of the photocell and the amplifier
tube leads to new interfering fluctuations. It does seem to me worthwhile, though,
to examine whether the photocell could be made sensitive enough by the amplifier
tube for the individual energy elements to become observable. Then, according to
the wave theory, the light rays going in the opposite direction would have to be-
come simultaneously observable by the aid of the photocell, whereas the light cell’s
fluctuations could possibly be detected independently.
Mr. Einstein: I cannot assess the soundness of the statistical criteria so quickly. But
from the theoretical standpoint I certainly can say that in partial reflection the
chance distribution of whole quanta must occur along both these
Mr. Hopmann: Is the observed one-sidedness dependent on the relative positioning
of the 2 viewing fields (primary on the right, secondary on the left or vice versa)?
Mr. Joos: On the comment by Mr. Wien: From all previous experiences, I am skep-
tical about the utilization of amplifier tubes, because fluctuations already occur
from grossly irregular electron emission (“tube boiling”) over and above the mag-
nitude provided by the shot effect.
On the question by Mr. Hopmann: No difference resulted from interchanging the