1 8 4 V O L U M E 8 , D O C U M E N T 6 5 9 b
Schreib recht bald wieder einmal, wir hören gerne Deine Meinung lass es Dir
recht gut gehn in dem Tohuwabohu u sei herzlich gegrüsst von Deinem
ALS. [144 790].
Einstein to Paul and Maja Winteler-Einstein, 11 November 1918 (Vol. 8, Doc. 652).
Four days earlier; she was born 18 November 1881.
A republic had been proclaimed in Germany on 9 November (for Einstein’s enthusiastic reac-
tion, see, e.g., his letter to Pauline Einstein, 11 November 1918 [Vol. 8, Doc. 651], note 1, and Einstein
to Ludwig Quidde, 15 November 1918 [Vol. 8, Doc. 655], note 3).
Three distinct phases marked the Swiss general strike. First, the twenty-four-hour protest strike
of Saturday, 9 November 1918, which was called by the Committee of Olten (Oltener Aktionsko-
mitee), a joint committee of the Swiss Social Democratic Party and the Swiss Trade Union Federa-
tion; then, the Zurich general strike from Sunday until Monday, 10–11 November; and finally, the
Swiss general strike, from the night of Monday–Tuesday, 11–12 November, until Thursday, 14
November. For a detailed account of the strike, with accompanying documents, see Gautschi 1968
The nine points were contained in the proclamation of a national strike of 11 November 1918
(see Gautschi 1971, pp. 237–240).
The Committee of Olten was composed of five members of the Swiss Social Democratic Party,
five trade-union members, and three representatives of the national railroad workers (see Gautschi
1968, pp. 94, 99, and 120–121).
Karl Liebknecht (1871–1919) was a leader of the Spartacists (Spartakusbund), who opposed tra-
ditional parliamentarism in favor of government by Councils of workers and soldiers (Räterepublik).
Allied with the left wing of the Independent Socialists (USPD), the Spartacists disagreed with the
USPD on whether to employ mass demonstrations and general strikes to achieve that end, with the
Spartacists favoring these tactics.
Robert Grimm (1881–1958), Swiss Social Democratic Nationalrat and president of the Com-
mittee of Olten. Together with Bundesrat Arthur Hoffmann (1857–1927) of the Swiss Liberal Dem-
ocratic Party, he had sought privately to organize a separate peace between Germany and Russia,
which was viewed by many as affording undue advantage to the Central Powers. Hoffmann was
forced to resign his position in 1917.
For background and analysis of imperial Germany’s participation in the Russian events of 1917,
specifically in Lenin’s return to Russia, see Hahlweg 1957.
Three days later, Hans Albert wrote his father a day-by-day account of the strike in Zurich (see
the following document).
Vol. 8, 659b. From Hans Albert Einstein
[Zurich, ca. 25 November
Wie geht es Dir? Mir geht es geht es ganz gut, nur hat die Schule wieder ange-
Schreibe mir bitte, wie es in Berlin
Du wirst gehört haben, dass
die letzte Woche hier Landesstreik
Das ging ungefär so zu:
Samstags morgen hieß es plötzlich, der Streik sei beschlossen. Das erste war