DOC.

37

REVIEW

OF

PLANCK'S LECTURES

377

Published in Beiblätter

zu

den Annalen

der

Phy-

sik 30

(1906):

764-766.

Published in

no. 15

[first

half

of

August].

[1] According

to the

foreword,

dated Easter

1906,

Planck delivered the lectures at

the

Uni-

versity

of

Berlin

during

the winter semester of

1905-1906

(Planck

1906c,

p.

v).

[2]

Works

of

the authors cited

by

Einstein and

treated in

Planck

1906c include Kirchhoff

1860,

Wien

1894, 1896,

and

Planck

1900a, 1901a.

[3]

Planck

1906c,

p.

38,

fn.

1,

cites

p.

594

of

Kirchhoff 1882,

a reprinting

of

Kirchhoff

1860,

and

Clausius

1864.

[4]

Planck

1906c,

p.

42,

cites

p.

574

of Kirch-

hoff 1882,

a reprinting

of

Kirchhoff

1860.

[5]

See

Planck

1906c,

p.

58.

[6]

Einstein showed in Einstein 1905i

(Doc.

14)

that the molecular

theory

of

heat and Max-

well's

theory yield

what

is

now

called the

Ray-

leigh-Jeans

formula. Einstein reiterated in Ein-

stein 1906d

(Doc. 34),

p.

200,

that this formula

contradicts

"experience" ("Erfahrung").

[7]

Einstein

may

be

referring

to

Planck's

treat-

ment

of

"complexions"

in radiation

theory

in

analogy

with

Boltzmann's

treatment

of

com-

plexions

in kinetic

theory

of

gases (see

Planck

1906c,

§

136-138). For

Einstein's criticism of

Planck's

treatment, see

the editorial

note,

"Ein-

stein's

Early

Work

on

the

Quantum

Hypothe-

sis,"

p.

138.

[8]

The word

"Normalspektrum"

("normal

spectrum"),

used

by

Planck,

but

not

otherwise

by

Einstein, refers to the

black-body energy

dis-

tribution.

[9]

See

Planck

1906c,

pp.

129-140. In

con-

nection with

Boltzmann's

notion

of "molecular

chaos"

("molekulare

Unordnung"),

p.

134,

fn.

1,

refers

to

Boltzmann

1896,

p.

21, to

the

con-

clusion

of

Boltzmann

1878a,

and

to

Burbury

1894.

[10]

The remainder

of

this

paragraph

and the

next

refer

to material in

Planck

1906c,

pp.

148-

179.

[11]

Planck

emphasizes

(Planck

1906c,

pp.

156 and 178-179) that

if

h

is

taken to be arbi-

trarily

small,

then the

Rayleigh-Jeans

distribu-

tion results. See the

following

note.

[12]

Einstein

1905i

(Doc. 14)

is

among

the

works discussed in

Planck

1906c,

p.

160,

fn.

1.

Planck

argued

that the

Rayleigh-Jeans

formula

results from the incorrect

assumption

that the

equipartition

theorem

is

valid for all values of

AT, referring

the reader to

pp.

177-179, where

he

states

that the above

assumption requires

the

probability

of

any system lying

in

a

small

region

of

phase space

to

be

proportional

to the size of

the

region,

no

matter how small. The last

con-

dition

is not fulfilled, however,

for thermal

ra-

diation, since

no system can

lie in

a

cell smaller

than the finite size

represented by

h. For further

discussion,

see

the editorial

note,

"Einstein

on

the Foundations

of

Statistical

Physics,"

p.

49.