564

DOC.

23 MAX

PLANCK AS

SCIENTIST

Published

in

Die

Naturwissenschaften

1

(1913):

1077-1079. Published

7

November

1913.

[1]This

article

was

solicited

by

Ferdinand

Springer,

the

publisher

of the

new

weekly journal,

Die

Naturwissenschaften.

He

had tried

to

become Einstein's

publisher

several

years

earlier

(see

the

Julius

Springer Publishing

House

to

Einstein, 25

October

1910

[Vol.

5, Doc. 228], and

Davidis

1985,

p.

53).

Einstein

had not yet begun writing

the

article three weeks before

its

publication (see

Einstein

to

Elsa

Löwenthal,

16

October

1913

[Vol.

5,

Doc.

478]).

[2]Planck

delivered his

inaugural

address

as

rector

on

15

October

1913

(see

Planck 1914b

for

its

published

version). His rectorship at

the

University

of Berlin

is

discussed

in

Heilbron

1986,

pp.

63-72.

[3]Planck

1879.

[4]Planck

1887.

[5]See

Gibbs 1876.

[6]See

Van

't

Hoff

1886.

[7]For

Einstein's views

on

the

difficulty

of

reading

Gibbs,

see

also Einstein

to

Michele

Besso,

23

June

1918.

[8]See Planck

1887,

pp.

501-503. Arrhenius

first

published

his views

on

dissociation later

the

same

year

in

Arrhenius

1887.

Planck discussed the

relationship

of

his

work

to

that of

Arrhenius

in

Planck

1888.

[9]Ostwald's dilution

law

appeared

in

Ostwald

1888. It is

contained

in

principle

in

the

equa-

tions derived

by

Planck

in

sec.

4

of Planck

1887.

[10]See Planck

1896b.

[11]For

a

detailed historical

account

of

the

energetics

controversy,

see

Deltete

1983.

[12]See

Planck

1896a.

[13]A

detailed historical

account

of

the early years

of

the

quantum theory

with

extensive

references

to

other studies

can

be

found

in Kuhn 1978.

[14]See

Kirchhoff

1860.

[15]See Boltzmann

1884.

[16]Wien

1893.

[17]This

relation

was

derived first in

Planck

1899,

but became

more

widely

known

by

its

publication

in

Planck 1900a

(see in

particular

p.

99

of

the

latter

paper).

For

a

brief discussion

of Einstein's first

reading

of these

papers,

see

Vol.

1,

the editorial

note,

"Einstein

on

Thermal,

Electrical, and

Radiation Phenomena,"

pp.

235-237.

[18]Planck

1901a.

The

argument appeared

first in

Planck

1900b.

[19]See Boltzmann 1877.

[20]This

point

is

developed

further in

Einstein 1909b

(Vol.

2,

Doc.

56), pp.

544-545,

Einstein

1910d

(Vol.

3,

Doc.

9), pp.

1276-1282,

and Einstein

et

al.

1914a

(Vol.

3,

Doc.

27),

pp.

353-

357.

[21]See

Planck

1900b,

1901b.

[22]See Perrin

1912

for

a

contemporary

review of

methods for

determining Avogadro's

number

N. See

also Einstein

to

Jean

Perrin,

11

November 1909

(Vol.

5,

Doc.

186),

and Vol.

2,

the editorial

notes,

"Einstein

on

the

Foundation of Statistical

Physics,"

pp.

46-47,

"Ein-

stein's Dissertation

on

the Determination of Molecular

Dimensions,"

pp.

170-182, and

"Ein-

stein

on

Brownian

Motion,"

pp.

206-222.

[23]Einstein

emphasized

this

point

in his two

major papers

of

1909,

Einstein 1909b

(Vol. 2,

Doc. 56) and

Einstein 1909c

(Vol.

2,

Doc.

60).

[24]Note

that

the

eight-year

period to

which Einstein refers here does

not begin

with Planck's

papers

of

1900-1901,

but rather

with the

year 1905,

and

his

own

paper

in

which

light quanta

were

introduced

(Einstein

1905i

[Vol.

2,

Doc.

14]).

[25]Planck's revisions of

his original theory

of thermal radiation

are

in

Planck

1911a,

1911b,

and

1912. See

also the second edition

of his book

on

thermal

radiation,

Planck

1913,

and his

Solvay

lecture,

Planck

1914a,

especially pp.

91-94. Historical discussions of this work

are

given

in Kuhn

1978, chap. 10,

and in

Needell

1980, chaps.

4 and 5.

For Einstein's reaction

to

Planck's revised

theory,

see

Einstein's

discussion remark after Planck's

Solvay

lecture

(Planck

et

al.

1914,

p.

106

[Vol. 3,

Doc.

25])

and Einstein

to

Wilhelm

Wien,

17 May

1912

(Vol. 5,

Doc.

395).