DOC.

2

RELATIVITY

AND

ITS CONSEQUENCES 175

present paper

did

not

contain

new insights:

"My paper

in the

Archives

[des

sciences

physiques

et naturelles] merely comprises a

rather

general

discussion of the

epistemological

foundations

of the

theory

of

relativity,

no

new

views whatsoever,

and almost

nothing

that

is

quantitative"

("Meine

Arbeit

im

Archiv enthält nichts

als

eine ziemlich breite

Ausführung

der erkenntnis-

theoretischen

Grundlagen

der

Relativitätstheorie, gar

keine

neuen

Ueberlegungen

und über-

haupt

fast nichts

Quantitatives") (Einstein

to

Jakob

Laub,

27

August

1910).

[3]See

Hertz, H. 1890.

[4]See Fizeau

1851.

Fizeau's result

apparently played

a

role

in

Einstein's

development

of

special relativity; see

Einstein

to

Mileva

Maric, 10

September

1899

(Vol. 1,

Doc.

54).

Never-

theless,

he laid much

less stress

on

the

importance

of the Fizeau

experiment

in his

earlier

publications

on

relativity,

such

as

the

review

article Einstein

1907j

(Vol. 2,

Doc.

47),

than he

does here.

See,

however,

Einstein

1909c

(Vol. 2,

Doc.

60),

p.

484,

and Einstein

1911i

(Doc.

17),

for

assessments

of the Fizeau

experiment

similar

to

the

one given

here.

[5]Lorentz

1895, 1906. A copy

of

the

second

edition,

bearing

Heinrich

Zangger's signature on

the title

page,

is in

Einstein's

personal library.

[6]See Wien 1898

for

an

overview of

experiments

related

to

detecting

the earth's motion

through

the

ether;

for evidence of Einstein's

reading

of

this

paper,

see

Einstein

to

Mileva

Maric,

28

September

1899

(Vol.

1,

Doc.

57).

[7]Michelson

and

Morley

1887.

[8]See

Lorentz

1892

and FitzGerald

1889.

[9]The

following example

first

appears, though

in

abbreviated

form,

in

the first section of

Einstein

1905r

(Vol.

2,

Doc.

23).

It

is not

mentioned

in

Einstein

1907j (Vol.

2,

Doc.

47).

See

Holton

1988, pp.

217-225,

and Miller

1981, chap. 3,

for

a

detailed discussion of Einstein's

reasoning

and

its

background.

[10]For

Einstein's earliest

attempt

to

extend the

principle

of

relativity to

accelerated reference

systems, see

Einstein

1907j

(Vol. 2,

Doc.

47).

[11]See

Einstein

1907e

(Vol. 2,

Doc.

41)

for

an

earlier

example

of this

generalization

of the

concept

of

a

clock.

[12]tB'

should

be

tB'.

This

passage is

the

first

time that Einstein

points

out

that

signals

of

any

kind

can

be

used

to

establish

a

definition of

simultaneity.

[13]The

concepts

denoted here

as

"configuration

geometrique"

and

"configuration

cinema-

tique" were

first

introduced

by

Einstein

in

Einstein

1907j (Vol. 2,

Doc.

47),

p.

417.

[14]From

this

point to

p. 135, §7.4,

the

exposition

closely

follows

Einstein

1907j (Vol. 2,

Doc.

47),

§§3-5.

[15]Einstein

1905r

(Vol.

2,

Doc.

23);

the volume number should

be

17

instead of

16;

and

Einstein

1907j (Vol.

2,

Doc.

47).

[16]A

derivation of the Lorentz transformation from the

equivalence

of these

two

equations

earlier

appeared

in

Einstein

1907j (Vol. 2,

Doc.

47), p.

419.

[17]See

Lorentz

1904.

[18]Stark

1906.

[19]In reaction

to

Stark's

measurements

of

the

Doppler

effect

of

canal

rays

(see

the

preceding

note),

Einstein

in 1907

discussed the

use

of

the

light

emitted

by

canal

rays

for

a

test of

special

relativity; see

Einstein

1907e

(Vol.

2,

Doc.

41).

See Ives

and

Stilwell 1938

for the first

experimen-

tal confirmation.

[20]The

argument

that

follows

was

first

given

in

Einstein

1907h

(Vol. 2,

Doc.

45),

pp.

381-382.

Einstein

extensively

discussed

the

problem

of

superluminal velocities in his

correspondence

with Wilhelm

Wien; see

the editorial

note in Vol.

5,

"Einstein

on

Superluminal Signal

Velocities."

For

a more

detailed discussion of

the

preceding equation,

first

derived

by

Laue,

see

Einstein

1907j

(Vol.

2,

Doc.

47), pp.

424-427.

[21]Minkowski

1909. Initially,

Einstein

was

apparently

not at

ease

with Minkowski's

four–

dimensional formalism for

relativity; see

Einstein

1908a

(Vol.

2,

Doc.

51),

p.

532.

For

a positive

comment

on

Sommerfeld's

contemporary

use

of

it, see

Einstein

to

Arnold

Sommerfeld,

July

1910.