102

DOC.

1

MANUSCRIPT

ON SPECIAL

RELATIVITY

AD.

[81

600].

This document

is

written

on

72

sheets of 36x22.5

cm,

numbered

by

Einstein

in

the

upper right-hand

corner

(1-13, 13a,

14-20, 20a,

21-70).

In

this

transcription

these

page

numbers

are

placed

in the

margin

in

square

brackets.

Except

[p.

27], all

sheets have

writing

on

one

side

only.

The

verso

of

[p. 27],

which

is

omitted,

contains

calculations similar

to

the

ones

on [p. 5]

of Einstein's research

notes

on a

generalized theory

of

relativity (Doc.

10).

Four dif-

ferent kinds of

paper

are

used,

one

of which

can

be

identified

as

of

Swiss

manufacture;

it

was

used for

[pp.

47-69].

Einstein

began

the

manuscript

in

pencil,

but after

writing

seventeen

lines

switched

to

ink.

[1]See the

editorial

note,

"Einstein's

Manuscript

on

the

Special Theory

of

Relativity,"

secs.

II

and

III,

for

the

arguments

on

which

the

dating

of this document

is

based.

[2]Einstein's definition of electrical

charge

is

similar

to

the

definition of

charge

in his lecture

notes

for

a course on

electricity

and

magnetism at

the

University

of Zurich

(Vol. 3,

Doc.

11),

which

in

turn

follows Mach's definition of

mass

in

Mach

1908,

sec.

5.

[3]See

Heaviside

1892,

p.

199.

[4]Einstein's

use

of lower-case Gothic characters for

electromagnetic

vectorial

quantities

follows

Lorentz 1904b.

[5]At

this

point

in the

original text

Einstein

indicates

a

note

he has appended

at

the

foot of

the

page:

"Die Normale

soll

nach links

zeigen

für einen

Beobachter,

der die Kurve

in

der fest-

gesetzten Richtung

mit dem

Kopfe

voran

durchläuft

und nach

dem Inneren der

Fläche schaut."

[6]See

Siegel

1991

for

a

historical discussion of Maxwell's introduction of

the

displacement

current.

[7]At this

point

in the

original text

Einstein indicates

a

note

he has

appended at

the

foot of

the

page:

"Mit "e"

ist die

zeitliche

Ableitung

des

Vektors

e

bezeichnet; d. h.

der Vektor mit

den Komponenten

dex/dt,

dey/dt,

dez/dt."

[8]See

Rowland

1878 and

Rowland and Hutchinson

1889.

The

experiment

was

proposed

by

Maxwell

(see

Maxwell

1891,

vol.

2,

p.

415).

See, e.g.,

Laue

1911a,

pp.

9-10,

for

a

discussion.

[9]See

Maxwell

1891,

vol.

2,

p.

415.

[10]In

the

following equation

(S

should

be

e.

[11]This

deleted

passage

as

well

as

other similar

ones

suggest

that Einstein

originally

intended

to

add

a

section

on

vector

calculus

to

his

text.

[12]Einstein

uses

the

notations

ab,

(a,b),

or

(a

b)

for

the

scalar

product

of

two vectors

a

and

b.

The

vector

product is

denoted

by [a,b] or

[a b].

[13]The

pxx

etc.

in the

equations

below

are

Laue's notation

(see

Laue

1911a,

p.

82).

[14]See, e.g.,

Lorentz 1904b,

p.

156.

[15]At this

point

in the

original text

Einstein indicates

a

note

he has

appended at

the

foot of

the

page:

"Die auf

ein

unendlich kleines

geladenes

Teilchen

vom

Volumen

V

wirkende Kraft

^

ist

offenbar

Ä=

fV=

PV{e+[5,f)]}

=

e{e+g,f,]}(

wobei

e

die

elektrische

Ladung

des

Teilchens bezeichnet."

[16]See

Lorentz

1904b,

sec.

IV.

[17]For

Lorentz's

analysis

of

the

normal Zeeman

effect,

see,

e.g.,

Lorentz

1909, chap. 3.

[18]See

Einstein

1907j (Vol. 2,

Doc. 47),

§10,

for Einstein's earlier discussion of

experi-

ments

on

cathode

rays

as

empirical support

for

the

theory

of

relativity.

For

a

historical

account,

see

Miller

1981,

chap.

1.

[19]See,

e.g.,

McCormmach

1973

for

a

historical discussion of Lorentz's electron

theory.

[20]See

Lorentz

1904b,

§§26-28,

for

a

discussion.

[21]See

Röntgen

1888

and

Eichenwald

1903,

1904. See

also

Lorentz 1904a,

§17,

and Lorentz

1904b,

§34,

for discussions.

[22]See

Wilson

1904.

[23]See Lorentz

1904b,

§48.

[24]At

this

point

in the

original text

Einstein indicates

a

note

he has

appended at

the

foot of

the

page:

"Die

eingeführte Zerlegung

ist

insbesondere

gerechtfertigt

mit

Rücksicht auf den