534

DOC. 20 THEORETICAL ATOMISM

Published

in

Die Kultur der

Gegenwart.

Ihre

Entwicklung

und ihre

Ziele. Paul

Hinneberg,

ed.

Part

3,

sec.

3,

vol.

1,

Physik.

Emil

Warburg,

ed.

Leipzig:

Teubner,

1915,

pp.

251-263. Dated

before

21

October

1913

(see B.

G.

Teubner

Publishing

House

to

Pieter

Zeeman,

21

October

1913,

NeHR,

Archief

P. Zeeman, in

which

it is

mentioned

that the

last

manuscript

for

the

volume

has

just

been received

by

the

publisher).

[1]For

a

general

overview of the

development

of

ideas

on

energy

conservation

in the nine-

teenth

century,

see

Harman

1982.

[2]See Helmholtz

1847,

p.

6.

[3] See

Brush

1976

for

a

history

of the kinetic

theory

of

matter

in the nineteenth

century. See

also

Einstein's

own

exposition

of kinetic

theory

in his

lecture

notes

for

a course on

the kinetic

theory

of heat

at the

University

of

Zurich,

summer

semester 1910

(Vol.

3,

Doc.

4).

[4]For

a

historical discussion of Rudolf Clausius's

work,

see

Brush

1976, chap.

4.

[5]

Article

11

in the

physics

volume of

Die

Kultur der

Gegenwart

is

Dorn

1915,

which deals

with

experimental

atomism.

P.

233

discusses Rudolf Clausius's theoretical result that the

vis-

cosity

coefficient of

gases

is

independent

of

the

density.

[6]

See the

preceding note.

[7]See

Loschmidt

1865.

[8]

For

a

historical discussion of Einstein's earlier interest

in the

determination of molecular

dimensions,

see

Vol.

2,

the

editorial

note,

"Einstein's Dissertation

on

the

Determination of

Molecular

Dimensions,"

pp.

170-182.

[9]

See

Knudsen

1910a.

Knudsen's work

on

dilute

gases is

discussed

by

Einstein

in

his lecture

notes

for

a course on

the

kinetic

theory

of heat

at

the

University

of

Zurich,

summer

semester

1910

(Vol. 3,

Doc.

4).

[10]

See Van

der Waals

1873.

[11]See

Riecke 1898 and

Drude

1900a,

1900b.

Article

20 in the

physics

volume of

Die

Kultur

der

Gegenwart

is

Starke

1915,

which

has

electrical

conductivity

as

its

subject.

For Einstein's

earlier interest

in the

electron

theory

of

metals,

see

Vol.

1,

the

editorial

note,

"Einstein

on

Thermal, Electrical, and

Radiation

Phenomena,"

pp.

235-237.

[12]For

a

contemporary

review of

the

kinetic

theory

of

magnetism,

see

Langevin 1912;

see

also Einstein's

treatment

of

this

subject

in his

lecture

notes

for

a course on

the

kinetic

theory

of heat

at

the

University

of

Zurich,

summer

semester

1910

(Vol. 3,

Doc.

4).

[13]For

a

historical discussion of Boltzmann's contributions

to

kinetic

gas

theory,

see

Brush

1976, chap. 6.

[14] For

a

brief

overview of

the

history

of Brownian motion

and its

theoretical

explanation

by

Einstein,

see

Vol.

2,

the

editorial

note,

"Einstein

on

Brownian

Motion,"

pp.

206-222.

P.

242 of

article

11

in the

physics

volume of Die Kultur der

Gegenwart (Dorn

1915) gives

a

historical review of

measurements

of Brownian motion.

[15]

See

note 13.

[16]For

a

discussion of

the

role of

this

theorem

in

Einstein's work

on

statistical

mechanics,

see

Vol.

2,

the

editorial

note,

"Einstein

on

the

Foundations of Statistical

Physics,"

p.

53.

[17]

Article

32 in the

physics

volume of Die Kultur der

Gegenwart

is

Hasenöhrl

1915,

which

discusses conservation of

energy

and

entropy

increase.

[18]The

use

of Boltzmann's

principle

as a

heuristic device

was

introduced

by

Einstein

in

Einstein

1905i

(Vol.

2,

Doc.

14).

For

a

historical

discussion,

see

Klein, M.

1974.

[19]See

Einstein 1907a

(Vol. 2,

Doc.

38)

for

a

discussion of

this

relationship.

[20]For

a

similar characterization of

the

consensus

of

the

scientific

community

on

this

point,

see

Einstein's "Comment

on a

Fundamental

Difficulty

in

Theoretical

Physics,"

dated 2

January

1911

(Vol.

3,

Doc.

16).

[21]

Article

10

in the

physics

volume of Die Kultur der

Gegenwart

is Wien

1915,

which deals

with heat radiation. For

a

comprehensive

discussion of Planck's radiation

theory

and its

recep-

tion

by

contemporary physicists, including

Einstein,

see

Kuhn 1978.