DOC. 25

FOUNDATIONS OF

GENERAL THEORY

577

Published

in

Physikalische Zeitschrift 15

(1914):

176-180. Dated

January 1914,

received

24

January 1914, published 15 February

1914. A

two-page fragmentary manuscript

version of the

paper

is

preserved

and is

identical with

the

corresponding pages

in

the

published

text.

The

first

manuscript page

[81

159]

is

enclosed

by

Einstein

in

an

undated letter

to

"Herr

Kollege"

and

is in

the Schweizerische Landesbibliothek in

Bern,

Switzerland. The second

page

[70 194]

is

interleaved with the

manuscript original

to Doc.

31

and

is in

the Schwadron

collection,

Einstein

file

no.

38 at

Hebrew

University.

[1]Einstein

referred

to his

work

on

the

manuscript

for

this

paper

in

Einstein

to

Elsa

Löwenthal,

after

21

December

1913

(Vol.

5,

Doc.

497);

in

Einstein

to

Heinrich

Zangger,

ca.

20

January

1914

(Vol.

5,

Doc.

507),

he stated that he had finished

the

manuscript

"in

the

last few

days"

("in

den letzten

Tagen").

The

first two

pages

of the

manuscript

of

this

paper cover

the

text

from the

beginning

until the words "Hierauf

ist

es

zurückzuführen,

daß die"

at

the

end of

sec.

5

on p.

177

of the

published

version.

[2]Mie

1914a,

1914b. In

Einstein

to

Erwin

Freundlich,

ca.

20

January

1914

(Vol. 5,

Doc.

506),

Einstein characterized Mie's criticism

as a

"heated

polemic" ("hitzige

Polemik").

[3]See

Einstein and Grossmann

1913

(Doc. 13).

In

addition

to this

paper,

Mie

1914b cites

Einstein 1913c

(Doc. 17)

on p.

172. In Mie

1914b,

p.

175,

Mie writes: "With

all due

respect

for

the

extraordinarily probing

and laborious work that Einstein has

engaged

in to

achieve

the

goal

he set

for

himself,

one can

only

characterize his

attempt

as

having produced

a

negative

result"

("Bei

aller

Anerkennung

der außerordentlich

scharfsinnigen

und mühsamen

Arbeit,

die

Herr Einstein

zur

Erreichung

des

gesteckten

Zieles

aufgewendet hat,

kann

man

doch nicht

anders

sagen,

als

daß

sein

Versuch

nur

ein

negatives

Resultat

gehabt

hat"). Mie

claims that

Einstein had neither succeeded

in generalizing the relativity

principle nor

in

establishing

the

equivalence

of

gravitational

and inertial

mass

(see

Mie

1914b,

p.

176).

[4]In

a

letter

to

Ernst

Mach,

Einstein refers

to this

argument

with

the words "for the time

being,

this

epistemological argument is all I

can

advance in favor of

my

new

theory" ("bis

jetzt

ist

jenes

erkenntnistheoretische

Argument

das

Einzige,

was

ich

zugunsten

meiner

neuen

Theorie

vorbringen

kann." Einstein

to

Ernst

Mach,

second half of December

1913

[Vol. 5,

Doc.

495]).

[5]For

Mie's

comparison

of

the

role

played

by

the

speed

of

light

in his

own

and in Einstein's

theory,

see

Mie

1914b,

p.

172.

For the

following argument,

see

Einstein and Grossmann

1913

(Doc. 13), part

1,

§2.

[6]In Mie 1914b,

pp.

171-172,

Mie

gives

an

account

of Einstein's

equivalence hypothesis,

comparing

it to

the transformation

properties

of

the

gravitational potential

in

his

own

theory,

which

he

summarizes

in the

"theorem of the

relativity

of

the

gravitational potential" ("Satz

von

der Relativität des

Gravitationspotentials").

[7]See

Minkowski

1909.

[8]In

Mie

1914b, p. 176,

Mie

asserts:

"The

generalization

of

the

principle

of

relativity

which

has been achieved

in

Einstein's

paper

refers

only to

linear

transformations

and

hence has

nothing

whatsoever

to

do with accelerated motion"

("Die Verallgemeinerung

des

Relativitäts-

prinzips,

die in

der Einsteinschen Arbeit erreicht worden

ist,

bezieht

sich

nur

auf

lineare Trans-

formationen,

hat also mit

beschleunigten Bewegungen gar

nichts

zu

tun").

[9]See

eq.

(5c)

on

p.

1257

of Einstein 1913c

(Doc. 17).

[10]See,

e.g.,

Abraham

1914a,

p.

25,

for criticism

along

these

lines. In

contemporary

letters

Einstein characterized

the

intentions of his

colleagues

in

a

similar

way,

but also

expressed

satisfaction that his

theory

was

being

discussed;

see, e.g.,

Einstein

to

Erwin

Freundlich,

ca.

20

January

1914

(Vol. 5,

Doc.

506),

where

he

writes,

after

mentioning

Mie's criticism: "I

am

pleased

that

my

colleagues

come

to

grips

with

the

theory

at

all,

even though,

for the time

being,

only

with the

intention of

killing

it"

("Ich

freue mich

darüber,

dass

die

Fachgenossen

sich

überhaupt

mit

der Theorie

beschäftigen,

wenn

auch

vorläufig

nur

in

der

Absicht,

dieselbe

totzu-

schlagen").

See

also Einstein

to

Heinrich

Zangger,

ca.

20

January 1914

(Vol. 5,

Doc.

507),

for

a

similar

comment

and the editorial

note,

"Einstein

on

Gravitation

and

Relativity:

The Collab-

oration

with

Marcel

Grossmann,"

pp.

296-298,

for

a

discussion of

the

restricted covariance of

Einstein's

theory.