D O C U M E N T 8 M A R C H 1 9 1 9 1 3
[4]Presumably one of the members of the Schlubach family of Hamburg who owned the coffee
planting company Schlubach, Thiemer & Co. (Hamburg), founded by Heinrich A. Schlubach in 1867
(see Schlubach 1925).
Jacob H. Schiff (1847–1920), American financier and philanthropist, was particularly interested
in making financial contributions toward relief work during World War I “in the various belligerent
countries, including the Central Power nations” (see Jacob Schiff to Eliot Wadsworth, December
1916, quoted in Adler 1928, Vol. 2, p. 226). In the aftermath of the war, he advocated American in-
volvement in “the furnishing of the raw material and manufactured articles Europe needs from us”
(see Schiff to James S. Alexander, president of the National Bank of Commerce, New York, 4 August
1919, quoted in Adler 1928, Vol. 2, p. 248).
[5]Rudolf Moos was a shoe entrepreneur in Berlin who patented the trademark “Salamander” in
1899. In 1905 he founded the Salamander-Schuhgesellschaft mbH in Berlin, together with the Korn-
westheimer Schuhfabrik Jakob Sigle & Cie.
[6]In May 1917 Wilhelm Muehlon wrote an open letter to the German Chancellor Bethmann-Holl-
weg, attacking the military and governmental war policies (see Muehlon and Benz 1989, p. 17). In the
preface to his published diaries for the period August through November 1914, Muehlon stated that
he had attempted to get his diaries published earlier, but had failed (see Muehlon 1918, p. 3).
[7]Sometime between 19 and 23 February, Einstein returned to Berlin from his trip to Zurich,
where he had given a cycle of lectures on relativity (see Doc. 1, note 2). Einstein’s remark is most
likely a reference to the turmoil in Germany following the assassination on 21 February of Kurt Eisner
(1867–1919), prime minister of the Provisional National Council of the Free State of Bavaria.
[8]Leopold Koppel (1854–1933) was a senator of the Kaiser Wilhelm Society. His endowment pro-
vided major financial support for Einstein’s Institute of Physics (see Einstein to Mileva Einstein-
Maric;;, 2 April 1914 [Vol. 8, Doc. 1], note 5). The Auergesellschaft, more fully known as the Deutsche
Gasglühlicht Aktiengesellschaft, also had a Swiss branch, shares of which Einstein had bought with
others by January 1919 (see entry of 20 January 1919 in Calendar).
[9]Elsa was being treated in 1913 for an enlarged-heart condition (see Einstein to Elsa Löwenthal,
after 11 August 1913 [Vol. 5, Doc. 466]).
One of Zangger’s major research interests as forensic physician was toxicology (see Zangger
1967). He had poisoned himself with carbon monoxide in his own office in 1913 but recovered (see
Einstein to Heinrich Zangger, ca. 20 January 1914 [Vol. 5, Doc. 507], note 8).
8. To Erwin Freundlich
[Berlin,] 1. III. 19.
Lieber Herr
Nernst fragte neulich nach Ihrem (in unserem Vertrage vorgesehenen) Thätig-
keitsbericht für das Jahr 1918; ich bitte Sie, mir einen solchen
Ich las den klaren und schönen Aufsatz Kohlschütters über Eddingtons Stern-
Bei den tieferen Temperaturen mag allerdings das angenommene Mole-
kulargewicht nicht
Kann man die „Riesen“ und „Zwerg“ Sterne am
Spektraltypus unterscheiden oder
Letztere müssten bei gleicher Masse
mehr Gravitationseffekt zeigen als
ebenso unter den „Riesenst.“ die A
und B mehr als die M und K wegen der viel grösseren Dichte (Kl.
Beste Grüsse von Ihrem
A. Einstein.
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