x c i i E D I T O R I A L M E T H O D Where Einstein uses a superscript × and an * for the same purpose, it is uniform- ly rendered as *. Spaced type (Sperrdruck) in the original is rendered in italics, except in proper names, where it is rendered in roman font with first-letter capitalization. Proper names in all capital letters are transcribed with first-letter capitalization. Place names or official phrases that appear in italics or in all capital letters on preprinted form letters are rendered in roman font with first-letter capitalization. ANNO TAT ION The Introduction and Editorial Notes discuss the content and context of a text or significant themes common to several texts. The annotation to documents presented as full text elucidates references to per- sons, places, scientific developments, organizations, events, and literary references that were familiar to the author and to the intended audience of a text, but not nec- essarily to the current reader wherever possible, contemporaneous sources are cit- ed for all such information. Endnotes are also used to correct factual errors in the text, to identify words or phrases in dialect or in foreign languages, and to comment on textual problems such as confusing spelling, dubious readings, and illegible pas- sages. Corrections or emendations in a hand other than the author’s are omitted from the text, but included as endnotes if significant. In undated texts, an endnote to the bracketed dateline explains the dating. Edi- tors’ references to page numbers of documents reproduced in facsimile always re- fer to the original pagination. Einstein’s writings that have been published in the series are cited by author and date (given as the “permanent short title”), as well as by volume and document number. References to letters published in earlier volumes of The Collected Papers cite the names of author and recipient, the date, volume, and document number. Bibliographic references are cited by author and date (“short titles”). These ci- tations with full bibliographic information are listed alphabetically in the Literature Cited section at the end of each volume. This Literature Cited does not constitute a complete bibliography of all extant secondary works on Einstein. If a cited printed document can also be found in Einstein’s personal library, it is so noted.