1 2 6 D O C U M E N T 8 7 M A R C H 1 9 2 1
dem die Existenz der akademischen Lehrer und Schüler jüdischen Glaubens an
deutschen Hochschulen
Der Konflikt zwischen der Freiheit Ihres Empfindens und der Gebundenheit Ih-
res Tuns wurzelt in der Zeit, die Sie in Deutschland verlebt haben und der grossen
Leistung, die Sie vollbracht haben und ich habe es für meine Aufgabe gehalten, ihn
hier vor Ihnen auszubreiten
In unveränderlicher Freundschaft Ihr
Fritz Haber
TLS. [12 329]. Typed on letterhead “Geheimer Regierungsrat Professor Dr. F. Haber.”
[1]Haber (1868–1934) was director of the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for Physical Chemistry and
Electrochemistry in Berlin.
[2]See Doc. 63. The Zionist Organisation in London decided on the composition of the delegation
on 10 March. Menachem Ussishkin, member of the Zionist Executive, and Isaac A. Naiditch and Hil-
lel Zlatopolsky, both founding directors of Keren Hayesod, would travel with Weizmann and Einstein;
Rabbi Hirsch Perez Chajes and Zionist Executive member Arthur Ruppin would possibly join them
later. Einstein’s expenses were to be covered by the University Fund of the Zionist Organisation (see
Minutes of the Eighth Meeting of the Provisional Executive for Palestine, 10 March 1921 [IsRWW]).
According to Weizmann in mid-March, the other members of the delegation were Zlatopolsky and
Naiditch. Ruppin and Ussishkin were to follow at a later date (Chaim Weizmann to Bella Berligne,
14 March 1921, Wasserstein 1977a, p. 169).
Weizmann had become a naturalized British citizen in 1910 (see Reinharz 1985, pp. 338 and 506).
Einstein was invited to England by the universities of Manchester and London (see 19 and 24 March
1921 in Calendar). There was no official invitation by the British government.
[3]See Vossische Zeitung, 2 March 1921, Morning Edition, 1st Supplement. The third Solvay Con-
gress, the first since the outbreak of the war, was to be held in Brussels from 1 to 6 April 1921. Ein-
stein was invited by Hendrik A. Lorentz on 9 June 1920 (Vol. 10, Doc. 49). Even though the Solvay
Institute planned to invite only scholars from Allied countries or from countries which remained neu-
tral, an exception was made for Ehrenfest and “for Mr. Einstein, of uncertain nationality, Swiss I
think, and who had been the subject of quite a bit of agitation in Berlin during the War because of his
pacifist sympathies which always remained unchanged” (“exception avait été faite pour Mr. Einstein,
de nationalité mal définie, suisse je crois, et qui fut assez houspillé à Berlin pendant la guerre en raison
de sentiments pacifistes qui n’ont varié à aucun moment.” Emile Tassel to Michel Huisman, 23 March
1921 [BeBxUL, Archives des Instituts Internationaux de Physique et de Chimie fondés par Ernest
Solvay, no. 2074]. “The only German invited is Einstein, who is considered for this purpose to be
international” (Ernest Rutherford to Bertram B. Boltwood, 28 February 1921, in Badash 1969, p.
[4]A reference to Goethe’s drama Torquato Tasso, which juxtaposes the political, pragmatic
prince’s chief minister Antonio Montecatino and the romantic, egocentric poet Torquato Tasso.
[5]Warren G. Harding (1865–1923) had taken office on 4 March 1921. A year earlier, the U.S. Sen-
ate had voted against the ratification of the Versailles Treaty and against the United States joining the
League of Nations. Thus, as of the date of this letter, the United States was still technically at war with
Germany. Germany was hoping for a separate peace agreement with the United States, while request-
ing less stringent terms and timetables of implementing the Versailles Treaty in their negotiations with
Britain and France. A resolution to repeal the declaration of war, which Harding was to support upon
taking office, had been introduced in 1920 by senator Philander C. Knox, but was vetoed by President
Woodrow Wilson. The Knox-Porter Resolution unilaterally ending the war with Germany was signed
by Harding on 2 July 1921 (Jonas 1984, pp. 158–159).
[6]Two days earlier, the second London Conference on reparations had ended in failure, following
the breakdown in negotiations on the schedule and terms for payments by Germany. Allied sanctions
were to take effect immediately (Eyck 1967, p. 178).
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