D O C . 3 3 2 O N T H E E T H E R 3 3 7

to Maxwell’s theory, those fields could originate from electrical currents flowing

counter to the rotational motion around the rotational axis of these celestial bodies.

Sun spots, too, which are interpreted as vortices for good reasons, possess analo-

gous, very powerful magnetic fields. But it is hardly conceivable that in all these

cases electrical conduction, or convection, currents of sufficient strengths are actu-

ally present. It much rather looks as if cyclical motions of neutral masses generated

magnetic fields. Neither Maxwell’s theory in its original version, nor Maxwell’s

theory expanded in the sense of the general theory of relativity, permit one to pre-

dict such a field creation. Here nature seems to be pointing us to a fundamental con-

nection that has not yet been understood

theoretically.*)

If the aforesaid involves a case seemingly incapable of standing up to the field

theory in its present shape, the facts and ideas contained in the quantum theory

threaten to burst apart the framework of field theory altogether. For, the arguments

are multiplying in favor of the interpretation of light quanta as real physical entities,

and of the electromagnetic field as not being the ultimate reality to which the other

physical things could be attributed. After the theory of Planck’s formula already

showed that the transfer of energy and momentum by radiation proceeds as if the

latter were composed of atoms moving at the velocity of light c of energy hv and

momentum , Compton demonstrated by experiments on the scattering of X-rays

by matter that scattering acts occur in which light quanta collide with electrons and

transfer to them part of their energy, whereupon the light quanta change their ener-

gy and direction. It is a fact, at least, that X-rays experience such changes of fre-

quency upon being scattered (predicted by Debye and Compton)[17] as is required

by the quantum hypothesis.

*)

By electrodynamic analogy, it is suggestive to assume a relation of the form

, where dm is a mass moving at the velocity v; r resp. means the

distance of the origin from this mass. (Albeit, this formula can at most come into consider-

ation for cyclical motions and as a first approximation.) The ratio between the solar field

and the terrestrial field thus comes out right, in order of magnitude. Constant C is of the

dimension . From

this[19]

one can presumably find the order of

magnitude of constant C. If one enters this number into the above formula, it yields—

applied to the rotating Earth—the right order of magnitude for the Earth’s magnetic field.

These relations deserve attention, but could be caused by chance.

[p. 92]

dh Cdm------------

v r] , [

r2

–= r r =

gravitational constant

light velocity

------------------------------------------------------- -

hν

c

----- -