DOC. 148 S P A C E - T I M E 271 SPADINI— SPAIN 611 Nothing certain is known of what the properties of the space- time-continuum may be as a whole. Through the general theory of relativity, however, the view that the continuum is infinite in its time-like extent but finite in its space-like extent has gained in probability. TIM E The physical time-concept answers to the time-concept of the extra-scientific mind. Now, the latter has its root in the time- order of the experiences of the individual, and this order we must accept as something primarily given. I experience the moment “now,” or, expressed more accurate- ly, the present sense-experience (Sinnen-Erlebnis) combined with the recollection of (earlier) sense-experiences. That is why the sense-experiences seem to form a series, namely the time- series indicated by “earlier” and “later.” The experience- series is thought of as a one-dimensional continuum. Experience- series can repeat themselves and can then be recognised. They can also be repeated inexactly, wherein some events are re- placed by others without the character of the repetition becom- ing lost for us. In this way we form the time-concept as a one- dimensional frame which can be filled in by experiences in various ways. The same series of experiences answer to the same sub- jective time-intervals. The transition from this subjective” time (Ich-Zeit) to the time-concept of pre-scientific thought is connected with the for- mation of the idea that there is a real external world independent of the subject. In this sense the (objective) event is made to correspond with the subjective experience. In the same sense there is attributed to the subjective” time of the experience a “time” of the corresponding objective” event. In contrast with experiences external events and their order in time claim validity for all subjects. This process of objectification would encounter no difficulties were the time-order of the experiences corresponding to a series of external events the same for all individuals. In the case of the immediate visual perceptions of our daily lives, this corre- spondence is exact. That is why the idea that there is an objec- tive time-order became established to an extraordinary extent. In working out the idea of an objective world of external events in greater detail, it was found necessary to make events and experiences depend on each other in a more complicated way. This was at first done by means of rules and modes of thought instinctively gained, in which the conception of space plays a particularly prominent part. This process of refinement leads ultimately to natural science. The measurement of time is effected by means of clocks. A clock is a thing which automatically passes in succession through a (practically) equal series of events (period). The number of periods (clock-time) elapsed serves as a measure of time. The meaning of this definition is at once dear if the event occurs in the immediate vicinity of the clock in space for all observers then observe the same clock-time simultaneously with the event (by means of the eye) independently of their position. Until the theory of relativity was propounded it was assumed that the conception of simultaneity had an absolute objective meaning also for events separated in space. This assumption was demolished by the discovery of the law of propagation of light. For if the velocity of light in empty space is to be a quantity that is independent of the choice (or, respectively, of the state of motion) of the inertial system to which it is referred, no absolute meaning can be assigned to the conception of the simultaneity of events that occur at points separated by a distance in space. Rather, a special time must be allocated to every inertial system. If no co-ordinate system (inertial system) is used as a basis of reference there is no sense in asserting that events at different points in space occur simul- taneously. It is in consequence of this that space and time are welded together into a uniform four-dimensional continuum. See R e l a t i v i t y . (A. E.) SPADINI, ARMANDO (1883-1925), Italian painter was born Published in Encyclopoedia Britannica, 13th ed., edited by J. L. Garvin, Supplementary Vol. 3, London and New York: The Encyclopœ dia Britannica Co., Ltd., 1926, pp. 608-611. Submitted 3 January 1926. Dated by the receipt [1 076] of Einstein’s sending the German manuscript (Doc. 147) to Thomas C. Hodson, and Hodson’s acknowledgment of receiving the manuscript (see Abs. 253). See Doc. 147 for annotation. ularly by Giorgione and Paolo Veronese. His painting entitled *' Giovani al bagno secured him the Pensieriato artistico na- sionale, in 1910. He developed rapidly an art which was full of in the painting oi children. Two important pictures " Figure and Bambini. are in the National GaUery of Modern Art in Rome, Musica al Pincio is in the new Mussolini Museum also in Rome, while others are in the Florence Modern Art Gallery, in the.Luxembourg, and in the Lima Museum but his most important paintings are in private collections in Rome. SPAIN (see 25 527). a country of southwestern Europe and and the population 21,066,000 (1925* estimate). ** to reconstruct his Cabinet. ^Thb second Ministry! during which (Jan. 7-13) the King visited Mcliila, lasted till April 3 1911, when it fell on the occasion of u debate on the Ferrer case, the army officers having resented the half-hearted attitude of Can- affairs. The French were preparing their advance on Fez, and Spain was forced to an active policy, the first signs of which were received with ill-humour by the French Press. The Gov- ernment, in the teeth of popular opposition, were sending troops to Morocco, and on June 9 a Spanish force landed at Larachc. rising, plotted by the lower deck of the cruiser 11 Numanda '* was mobbed to death. The Government met the situation with coolness and resolution, and towards the end of Sept, the strike The Moroccan operation prepared as a consequence of the phere of ill feeling due to the belief, current in the Spanish Army, ammunition. Under such unfavourable conditions began the negotiations for a Franco-Spanish agreement following upon the cussion of the bill called dt Moneomunidadcs/ostensibly allowing for purposes of common administration, but in reality constitut- ed local Parliament. With the summer a period of strikes, cul- applying Article 221 of the Recruiting Law allowing the drafting into military service of all men of military age working in indus- stances. On Oct. 14 the autumn session began with a fresh dis- cussion of the bill de Moncomunidodes, but the session was Spanish Treaty on Morocco had been signed, in a more perraa-
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